Thursday, May 28, 2020

Fine Tuning Look at Different Theories Concerning This - 2200 Words

Fine Tuning: Look at Different Theories Concerning This (Essay Sample) Content: Fine-TuningStudentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s NameInstitutional AffiliationAbstractFine-tuning of the universe is the idea that there is precise conditions or balance that exists allowing observable universe to exist. If the conditions were to change even by a little difference, the universe would not exist as it is. This paper is going to bring to light aspects that are believed to be fine-tuned; with which if they were not fine-tuned a different universe would exist. Such elements include Cosmic Constants Initial Conditions and "Brute Facts", Local" Planetary Conditions and Effects of Primary Fine-Tuning Parameters. The fact that no one Science can explain entirely how the universe is fine-tuned is evident that God fine-tuned the universe for habitation.IntroductionThe occurrence of life in itself is a wonder but what sustains it is of immense surprise. An argument that exists on fine-tuning includes that there are many universes and the odd of having a perfect universe is higher than the probability of having an imperfect universe. However, no evidence has been substantiated of this and most of the time this theory is said to suffer from infinite regress by scientists. Another theory is that the universe is fine-tuned by an intelligent designer, this theory does not state who the designer is but asserts that there must be a particular artist. Another theory states that it could have occurred by a natural process where volcanic eruptions occur and various compounds formed and fallen in the right way to form the universe (Baer et al. 2013). Such an event is not only unlikely but also extraordinary consequently this argument is not valid (Wallace 2012).One of the aspects that are fine-tuned include gravitational force which is at a constant calculate by Brandon Carter shows that the if gravity had been stronger or weaker by one part in the tenth to the fortieth power, then life-sustaining stars like the sun would not exist. What would be life like without the sun? Winter in itself is a season that most people do not look forward to The Sun is one of the primary things that life depends on due to the provision of heat for both human beings and growth of plants that we depend on for food. Without the sun, people would lack Vitamin D that is necessary for the growth of bones and formation of calcium. The Sun also provides heat favourable to make some places of the universe warm like the earth. Other planets like Mars and Pluto are so cold to be inhabitable. This shows that the constant gravitational force is fine-tuned and necessary for life. Another aspect of fine-tuning is electromagnetic force constant where if the constant were to be changed by a small number making it weaker or stronger life would be impossible because the chemical bonds would be unstable. Cosmological constant which Albert Einstein proposed as to provide an outward pushing pressure that prevents gravity matter from causing the universe to collapse on itself. This cont rols the expansion speed of the universe. It refers to the balance of the attractive force of gravity with a hypothesised repulsive force of space observable only at large size scales. It must be very close to zero, that is, these two forces must be nearly perfectly balanced. If it were just slightly more positive, the universe would fly apart while slightly negative, and the universe would collapse. Also, if the constant were not there, there would be a high possibility that the universe would not have life-sustaining planets. In addition to those aspects, another form that exists is strong nuclear force constant (small-scale attractive force, holds nuclei of atoms together, which otherwise repulse each other because of the electromagnetic force which if it were weaker, the universe would have fewer stable chemical elements, eliminating several that are life-sustaining. Weak nuclear force constant which governs radioactive decay if it were much stronger or weaker, life-essential st ars could not form. These four aspects are referred to as the fundamental force in the general theory of relativity (Ruiz 2013).Besides physical constants, there are initial conditions, which describe the conditions present at the beginning of the universe which are independent of physical constant. Entropy represents the disorder in the system. Thus, low entropy is good for the start of the universe. A physicist, Roger Penrose estimates that the odds of the initial low entropy state of our universe occurring by chance alone are on the order of 1 in 10 10(123) that is extremely entropy which is necessary. The ratio of protons and neutrons is at a constant such that neutrons are about 1.001 times the mass of the proton; all protons would decay into all neutrons or vice versa thus making life impossible. If it were greater, there would be too few heavy elements for life while if it were smaller stars would quickly collapse as neutron stars or black holes (Razavi 2013). Another example of fine-tuned aspect that falls under initial conditions category is finely tuned density of the universe. For the universe to be life-sustaining the universe must have maintained a constant. The density is so finely tuned that a change in one part in 1015 would cause a collapse or a big crunch or there would be such a massive expansion that the galaxies would not exist (Carroll 2014).Drange's formulation asserts that there must be an intelligent designer who designed the universe. To put this intelligent designer into perspective, God must have been the one that created those finely-tuned parameters this for the entire living to exist. Another reason that this is possible is that scientists and physicists alike have not found...

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Macroeconomics of New Zealand - 1812 Words

Macroeconomics New Zealand 2001 | May 12 2011 | This document contains 1552 words without the Harvard style referencing and the table of contents. | | ------------------------------------------------- Created by: Rausch Pà ©ter ------------------------------------------------- Module: Macroeconomics ------------------------------------------------- Contents Economic profile of New Zealand 3 Rate of GDP Growth 4 Stance of Fiscal policy 6 Government spending 2001 6 Financial System 7 Exchange rate 8 Balance of Payment 9 Works Cited 10 New Zealand’s Macroeconomic situation This is going to be an analysis of New Zealand’s Macroeconomic situation taking into consideration the most important measures of a†¦show more content†¦Direct public debt increased by a net amount of 1,004 million dollar including swaps between 1 July 2000 and 30 June 2001. This increase consisted of a net increase in internal debt of 1,061 million dollar and a net decrease in external debt of 57 million dollar. Government gross direct debt amounted to 34.1% of GDP in the year June 2001, which is a decrease from 35.5% in the previous year. The Budget forecasts operating balances rising to 2%, and net debt being maintained at a highly manageable 18% of GDP by the 2003 financial year. It initiates the transfer of funds into the New Zealand Superannuation Fund, a process that contributes to higher national savings and improves the ability of future governments to meet the costs of an ageing population structure. Government spending 2001 New operating spending is around $700 million in 2001/02, including contingency funding. Initiatives fall into three priorities: investing in education, health and disability services, social services and housing (the fundamentals) Enhancing economic transformation and cultural development (moving New Zealand forward) Investing in our defence and police forces, conservation, bio security, and the environment. For 2001, the New Zealand government has planned the following in their spending: * Enhance community and voluntary services * provide for New Zealanders’ housing needs * Funding a wide range ofShow MoreRelatedMacroeconomic Trends And Conditions Of New Zealand Essay1511 Words   |  7 Pagesfollowing essay, various macroeconomic trends and conditions will be explored in reference to New Zealand. While New Zealand has a rich history dating back to prehistoric times, the main economic development began with the colonization by British explorers in the late 1700’s. Throughout time, the island nation has shared much with its British lineage in that it has been a predominately isolated island nation that relies heavily on international trade. While this has allowed New Zealand to become developedRead MoreIncome Distribution And Distribution Income System1368 Words   |  6 Pagesin the long term. 4. Industrial democracy. The decline in union membership has mirrored the rise in income inequality in New Zealand. The ability of workers to organize and bargain for better wages and conditions was greatly reduced after the introduction of the Employment.(Barber, 2010). 5. Changes in family income formation The income inequality increasing in New Zealand over the past 25 years has been characterized by a large rise in the incomes of the top 20% of income holders and static orRead MoreLow Carbon Economy1313 Words   |  6 PagesNew Zealand’s transition to low carbon economy Notes Background information Aim of the report: Identify options on how New Zealand could reduce its domestic greenhouse gas emissions through a transition toward lower future emissions minimizing costs, while still maintaining well-being and income growth. Context: Despite generating 80% of its power from renewable sources, New Zealand has the second-highest level of emissions per GDP unit in the OECD and the fifth-highest emissions perRead MoreMacroeconomic - Government Policies in Reducing Inflation and Unemployment1493 Words   |  6 Pageswhole. Therefore, policies to achieve low and stable price inï ¬â€šation, a high and stable level of employment are big macroeconomics issues of our time. This essay focuses on discussing the role of government policy on reducing unemployment and inflation in relation to Keynesian and Monetarist approaches, including examples of impacts of expansionary fiscal and monetary policies on New Zealand economy. 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The name of the book is KEEPING ECONOMICS REAL (NEW ZEALAND ECONOMIC ISSUES) written by Paul Hansen and Alan King. This book is published by Pearson Education New Zealand in 2004.This book is printed in Malaysia and typeset in 10.5/12 Palatino. This book is dedicated to the memory of Ajit, Erikin, Pete and Priyatosh. Royal ties go to Erkin Bairam Memorial Scholarship. This book has three part. PartRead MoreA Research Study On Investment Products1436 Words   |  6 Pages p. 142). For this investment simulation, cash and domestic equities were selected as part of the trading process. Fixed interest based products were omitted from the trading process. The domestic equities selected included the Australian and New Zealand Banking Corporation and biomedical research firms CSL Limited and Monash IVF Limited. Further information regarding the corporation and the trading process review will be provided in detail below. A hypothetical amount totalling $300,000 was usedRead Morebilet 31023 Words   |  5 PagesПÐ µÃ'€Ð µÃ ²Ã µÃ ´Ã ¸Ã'‚Ð µ Ã'‚Ð µÃ ºÃ' Ã'‚ Ð ¸ Ð ¾Ã'‚Ð ²Ã µÃ'‚Ã'Å'Ã'‚Ð µ Ð ½Ã ° Ð ²Ã ¾Ã ¿Ã'€Ð ¾Ã' Ã'‹: WHAT IS MACROECONOMICS? Macroeconomics provides us with a bird s-eye view of a country s economic landscape. Instead of looking at the behavior of individual businesses and consumers—called microeconomics—the goal of macroeconomics is to look at overall economic trends such as employment levels, economic growth, balance of payments, and inflation. The study of the world economy, for example, is essentially a macroeconomic survey. Just as the speed of an engine is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Lord Of The Rings Essay - 1803 Words

Everyone tells story. Most are about things that are not real and unnatural. Look at the Brothers Grimm. If they were alive today, they would be making a fortune because of all the movies and books there are. Jonathan Tolkien dreamt about an alternate world, with a mix of languages and songs. The stories grabbed the minds of thousands and grew an empire. The Lord of the Rings series was by far one of the most successful books series in history. The main issue in the entire series is the One Ring. The one that Frodo and Bilbo Baggins carried around. However if you look into it closely, the main point to the One Ring is to represent power and temptation. I.Biography Childhood of Tolkien John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born in Bloemfontein, South Africa, on January 3, 1892, to Arthur Tolkien and Mabel Suffield Tolkien. After his dad died from peritonitis three years later, Mabel took Tolkien, and his younger brother Hilary, to Sarehole, near Birmingham, England. Mabel started to teach Tolkien at an early age. She taught him about botany. Tolkien liked to draw landscapes, but he had a great interest in languages, such as Greek, Anglo-Saxon and Finnish. He could read by age four and could write soon afterwards. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper. He did like the works of George MacDonald and Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. When Mabel died in 1904 from diabetes, the two brothers were sent to live with the family’s Catholic priest, Father FrancisShow MoreRelatedThe Lord Of The Rings1648 Words   |  7 Pagesand religious truth (or error), but not explicit, not in the known form of the primary real world.† As The Lord Of The Rings is, by Tolkien’s definition, a fairy-story, it would be correct to assume that it, too, contains â€Å"elements of moral and religious truth.† However, many who read Lord Of The Rings dispute the trilogy’s religious content. Tolkien states, The Lord Of The Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work†¦ That is why I have not put in, or have cut out, practicallyRead MoreThe Lord Of The Rings1736 Words   |  7 PagesThe Lord Of The Rings The story began as a consequence to Tolkien s 1937 fantasy novel The Hobbit, but eventually improved into a much larger employment. Written in stages between 1937 and 1949, The Lord of the Rings is the second pick-selling surprising ever written, with over 150 million carbon copy sold. The Lord of the Rings is an epopoeia exalted-imagination recent written by English subcreator J. The toil was initially intended by Tolkien to be one roll of a two-volume put, the other toRead MoreThe Lord Of The Rings1383 Words   |  6 PagesSome stories can affect people emotionally, but once in a while a story can call a person to escape to it. The Lord of the Rings is an enchanting story with masterful use of setting and sensational characters that engages readers and can move them to experience life in a deeper way. As a child J.R.R. Tolkien lived in Africa until his father passed away. Then his mother moved them to England. Mrs. Tolkien made certain that her children learned literature and languages. It was probably due somewhatRead MoreThe Lord Of The Ring1455 Words   |  6 PagesTom Bombadil placed the magic ring on his finger; everyone waited for him to disappear, but nothing happened, and he handed the ring back to Frodo without a slight hesitation. Frodo offered Galadriel the ring and she grew into a horrible creature towering over Frodo, but fought the ringâ€⠄¢s strong temptation, and finally decreasing back to her normal self and declined the powerful ring. Both Tom and Galadriel, in The Lord of the Ring, portray Tolkien’s respect for nature and strong spirituality, becauseRead MoreThe Lord Of The Rings1549 Words   |  7 PagesDarkness extended over all of Middle-Earth like a veil during the time of war. New laws were enforced and the citizens’ freedom was taken away. Frodo’s magic ring represents the unsustainability of the environment, and the characters of Middle-Earth. In The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses the magic ring to reflect the politics of sustainability, by drawing from his own life experiences. Two philosophers, Scruton and Hart write their recipes for sustainability. Scruton believes that finding the rightRead MoreThe Lord Of The Rings1469 Words   |  6 Pagesauthor of The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre, defined fantasy as â€Å"the creation of a moment of hesitation betw een two worlds†(qtd. Kelly, Course Introduction 2). This description of the genre compliments J.R.R Tolkien’s The Lord Of The Rings trilogy due to the author’s use of sub-creation to construct his alternate world. Tolkien believed that the way to create a believable, all-encompassing world was to combine fragments of reality, or the â€Å"primary world†, together to constructRead MoreThe Lord Of The Rings1698 Words   |  7 Pagesaudiences. Both of these have had a profound effect on the world, whether it be through changing a way of life or just by making time pass for a few hours. Certain books and movies have played great roles in the world and had many influences. The Lord of the Rings has had a massively positive effect on both literature and film. Its creation has led to many positives and in doing so has become one of the most influential stories ever created. It has also led to some major impacts outside of literature andRead MoreThe Lord Of The R ings999 Words   |  4 Pagesby J.R.R. Tolkien in The Lord of the Rings, where the ultimate power source created contains enough power that the master of the Ring becomes in turn the master of Middle Earth, and absolute power follows in accordance to absolute corruption of he who possesses it. Many a man and creature wields the Ring, falling to the temptation of its power and the poison of its possession, bringing about death and evil life to the masters of the Ring.In Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings, the wizard Gandalf renouncesRead MoreThe Lord Of The Ring841 Words   |  4 PagesThe Lord of the Ring J.R.R Tolkien Setting the western, middle, and southern region of Middle earth in the third age Character Frodo - a Hobbit with the one ring and has to take it into the land of Mordor and throw it into Mount Doom Sam - a Hobbit who is Frodo’s best friend who helps Frodo on his journey and come with him to the end Peregrin Took - a Hobbit call Pippin, who is Frodo’s friend and he helps Frodo on his journey Merry - a Hobbit who is Frodo’s friend and he helps Frodo on his journeyRead MoreThe Lord Of The Rings1352 Words   |  6 PagesThe darkness that had extended over Middle-Earth, lifted like a veil the moment the magic ring was destroyed. New laws were enforced and the citizens’ freedom was taken away. In The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses the magic ring to reflect the politics of sustainability, therefore exploring the hardships of an unsustainable community. Frodo’s magic ring represents the ruthless actions of the creatures of Middle-Earth. Two philosophers, Scruton and Hart write their recipes for sustainability. Scruton

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Dairy product free essay sample

Squash is a kind of vegetable that is commonly raised throughout the year in abundance. Ice cream is a frozen dessert made from dairy products, such as milk and cream. Because the squash is commonly raised througout the year, the researcher would like to study about squash as ice cream. The researcher gathered the materials needed. The researcher washed and sliced the squash. It is boiled with the malunggay leaves within 15 minutes after that the researcher let it cool. While waiting to the squash to cool the reseacher cooked the cornstarch and added sugar and condensed milk. By using the blender the reseacher mix the squash and the mixed sugar, condence milk and cornstarch. After that the researcher put it on a container and freezed it. The result of the study is, the people who taste the squash ice cream fill-up an evaluation paper. Many of them agree that the taste, smell, color and appearance were satisfying. We will write a custom essay sample on Dairy product or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Few only agree that it needs improvement. The researcher therefore conclude that squash ice cream is cheaper than the other ice cream. It is also nutritious because it is made up of squash. And we all that squash has lots of nutrients. About the taste of the ice cream, it is delicious because of the dairy products added. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I, the researcher would like to thank the people who helped and contributed to make this study successful. To my beloved Research teacher Ms. Loida Calma who helped and encouraged us to improve our work. To my parents and relatives who gave moral and financail support in making this project possible. To my friends who gave some ideas and tips about this project. To my group mates who extended their time just to finish this project. And specially I would like to thank God who gives knowledge, wisdom and his blessings to us. INTRODUCTION: Background of the study Squash is a kind of vegetable that is commonly raised throughout the year in abundance. One squash plant could bear fruits of more or less 200 before it dies. According to phytonutrient research, squash has health benefits. It has nutrients that make our body healthy, it is a brilliant source of vitamin C and a very good source of magnesium, vitamin A fiber, folate, copper, riboflavin and phosphorus. It is also abundant in potassium, that is a key electrolyte in the balance of fluids and also provides muscle energy. In addition, it is high in manganese, a mineral which helps the body process fats, carbohydrates, and glucose. Malunggay leaves was once considered a poor mans vegetables but now it is known as a miracle tree. It has many health benefits for human, malunggay leaves helps strengthens the immune system, help restores skin condition, controls blood pressure, relieves headaches and migraines, help normalize blood sugar level therefore preventing diabetes an many more. Ice cream is a frozen dessert made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, combined with flavorings and sweeteners, such as sugar. And we all know that lots of people like ice cream. So I the researchercome up with an idea to make a nutritious and delicious ice cream out of squash with peelings. I want to make this ice cream because this ice cream is nutritious and we can also sell this so that we can earn money. Statement of the Problem †¢Can squash with peelings be made into an ice cream? †¢Will the squash with malunggay bits taste good? Hypothesis Squash with peelings and malunggay bits can be made into an ice cream that tastes good with the help of sweeteners like sugar and condensed milk. Significance of the Study This study is significant because it aims to promote the use of squash and malunggay. It may also lessen the expenses of ice cream for people who cant afford expensive ice creams. This study can also be use for business. We can sell the ice cream so that we can earn money for more beneficial means. Ice cream out of squash and malunggay is rich in nutrients and vitamins that helps for our body to be healthy and prevent sickness or serious diseases. Definition of Terms †¢squash- edible fruit of various trailing annuals of the gourd family. †¢peelings- skin or outer layer of the squash. †¢ice cream a frozen dessert made from dairy products. †¢container- anything that serves to contain. †¢measuring materials- materials that measure liquids or anything. †¢dairy products- a commercial establishment that process or manufactures milk products. †¢strainer- anything that serves to contain. †¢Malunggay leaves- leaves of the miracle vegetable (malunggay).

Friday, April 17, 2020

The Story of Gilgamesh in Sumerian Versions

Table of Contents Introduction Discussion Conclusion Work Cited Introduction In world literature 1, the story of Gilgamesh is among the oldest narratives around the world. The story was initially an oral tradition story and was later recorded on clay in Mesopotamia. The legendary story comes in different Sumerian versions from around 2700 B.C. The story talks about the powers of Gilgamesh who was the King of Uruk and the influence of other gods in the land.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Story of Gilgamesh in Sumerian Versions specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Later on it was recorded in a Akkadian version and then reserved in King Assurbanipal‘s library. According to the story, Gilgamesh was a super human creature and a powerful king who could destroy and conquer others (Lishtar para.1). This paper seeks to critique the nature and powers of historical gods and their relationship to humanity in the past centuries as depicted by the narrative. Discussion Heroism of the kings is limited. The story describes how Gilgamesh oppressed people and slept with every woman. This made the people plead with other gods to provide security for them. As a result, Enkidu is created to counter Gilgamesh powers. Enkidu is however not as powerful as the superhuman king because he is part man and part animal. The limitation of the king’s powers is further seen when Gilgamesh fails to prevent death of Enkidu. This incident occurred after Enkidu and Gilgamesh collaborated to kill the Bull of Heaven (drought) who wanted to crush Gilgamesh to death (George 2). Drought had been sent by Anu the father of Ishatar who wanted Gilgamesh to marry her. On refusal, Ishtar compelled her father to kill the King of Uruk. But because two thirds of Gilgamesh was a god and the other third human, Enkidu died. The other issue that emerges from the myth is that the gods in Ukur are uncooperative. This can be see n when the council of gods decide to kill Enkidu as a punishment for Gilgamesh’s actions. This exposed the other humans to the exploitive powers of the King of Ukur. This further shows that the people in Babylonia were subjects to the gods and had no voice. Human beings are also depicted as creatures that have no freedom. According to the story, Gilgamesh gods have the power over life and death but Gilgamesh still becomes worried after realizing that she would also die. When the people pleaded with gods to create a god who would match Gilgamesh’s powers, the gods created Enkidu and also brought an end to his life. In the story, Gilgamesh is determined to learn the secrets behind life and death. The story says that Utnapishtim was the only creature who had the power to eternally live. In his search for the secret, he meets Utnapishtim who tells him about the flood story that is also described in Genesis, in the Bible. The floods symbolically represent the end and punish ment for human kind. Utnapishshtim says that they were saved from the floods by other gods and that it would not occur again. However, human beings have to die since they are not immortal.Advertising Looking for essay on literature languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the story, the Bull of heaven is referred to as drought. This is an irony. Naturally, drought is known to be catastrophic because it causes human suffering. However, the ‘Bull’ springs from heaven where people believe that there are good things and that it is a beautiful land. The other ironic incident is between King Gilgamesh and Enkidu. Gilgamesh is portrayed as a god and a man whereas Enkidu is illustrated as an animal and a man. This is a clear indicator of the differences in the two divinities who were created to control humanity. Conclusion The floods are symbolically used to show that man is immortal and death is inevitabl e. The narrative describes the birth and death of Babylonian gods’. Gilgamesh is depicted as a remorseless leader who has no responsibility for his people. He is depicted as a womanizer and an oppressor. He forces the city’s inhabitants to build walls for the temple so as gain fame. These are indicators of abuse of power and therefore the need to limit the powers of gods. Work Cited George, Andrew. The epic of Gigalmesh: the Babylonian epic poem and other texts in Akkadian and Summerian. London, Great Britain: The Penguin Press, 1999. Print. Lishtar. Gilgamesh and Enkidu: the soul siblings. 1999. Web. This essay on The Story of Gilgamesh in Sumerian Versions was written and submitted by user Charles Doyle to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 13, 2020

Mali Empire in Africa History Essay Sample

Mali Empire in Africa History Essay Sample Mali Empire in Africa History Essay Example Mali Empire in Africa History Essay Example Looking at Africa today one is likely to believe that civilization, governance and trade are new concepts introduced probably in the late 19th with the advent of colonialism. Africa was the most underdeveloped region in the world. In terms of civilization, though they have made progress in the use of technology especially mobile phones, the other sectors remain largely infant or nonexistent. In the 21st century the largest income earner and highest contributor to the GDP of most African economies remains to be agriculture. These are centuries after the agrarian revolution. Trade in most African countries is restricted to their former colonial masters with hardly any interstate trade going on. As for governance most African countries are young democracies, some of them were suffering from cruel dictatorship and others locked in never ending civil wars. The current situation is not a true representation of the African continent before the 15th century. On the contrary historical and ar chaeological evidence present a totally different picture. Medieval Africa was almost at par with the rest of the world as far as civilization is concerned. There existed many African Kingdoms and Empires that were governed properly complete with ministries and trade and foreign policies. These empires often formed as a result of military conquest, traded with other empires in Africa and also out of Africa with people in continents like Asia; they traded with Arabs and Chinese people and Europe with the Spaniards and the Portuguese. These empires were at the forefront of developing and using technology and their citizens lived quality lives for that period of time. This paper studies the rise and fall of the empires that thrived on the western coast of Africa before the 15th with a specific focus on the Mali Empire. The work discusses the factors that led to the rise of Mali Empire taking into account economical, geographical and political factors. It also examines how the above asp ects led to the decline and eventual collapse of the Mali Empire. Brief History of Early Kingdoms in Africa In medieval Africa, most people were either farmers, hunters and gatherers or livestock keepers. Their economic activities dictated where they settled. For instance, farmers settled in area with fertile lands and adequate water supply either through rainfall or close to water bodies such as ocean and lakes. Hunters and gatherers settled in areas near forests or grasslands where wild animals could be found easily. The herders preferred grasslands with adequate pasture for their animals. Economic activities were determined by the people’s tribes. Hence individuals of one tribe would settle together in an area, which favored their economic activity. As people settled, their numbers increased due to reproduction and often they would fight for the available resources. As a result of these conflicts, they needed someone to mediate and solve them. This led to the development of governance (McKissack, 1994: 190). They thus selected a person, in most cases the individual was a religiou s leader to mediate and gradually this person became the political chief. As people believed the religious gifts were hereditary, often the sibling of the religious persona would succeed him as a leader of the people. These tiny organizations normally grew in size to form kingdoms with kings and even a council of elders to advise the king in the governing of the people. They would further be divided into chiefdoms headed by chiefs who were the king’s representatives in the chiefdoms. It was possible to find many such kingdoms existing concurrently in an area, living as neighbors and intermarrying and even trading (Mann, 1996: 67). Over time one of the kings may develop a larger, more organized army whose military power exceeded those of the other kingdoms. Such a king would engage military warfare against his neighbors conquering them. In so doing he would force the other kings to pay allegiance to him; they would continue to rule their kingdoms as before, only this time they had to pay a fixed amount of revenue to him (McBrewster 85). The revenue came from the products produced in the kingdoms. The king of the strong kingdom hence merged a number of small kingdoms to form an empire and he became an emperor. Most empires then continued with the expansion by acquiring land and people from other kingdoms and through economic activities such as trade they grew in might. Most empires collapsed when due to weak governance or civil strife the individual kingdoms fought and achieved their independence. Many such kingdoms existed in Africa from the north to the south and to the east and west. To the east, kingdoms suc h as the Buganda kingdom flourished, the south had kingdoms such as the Zimbabwe Kingdom and the west had several great kingdoms including; Ghana, Mali and Songhai Kingdoms. The Mali Kingdom followed the above pattern and its rise and fall is discussed below. The Rise of the Mali Kingdom The rise of the Mali Kingdom was facilitated by a number of factors, which cut across all sectors ranging from geographical, political and economic factors. Geographical factors that led to the rise of the Mali Kingdom Mali had several geographical advantages over Ghana and the other kingdoms that enabled it to grow. First its proximity to the river Niger improved its transport system. This is as with the river, using canoes they were able to move not only more goods but also bulky ware that they would not have been able to if they had relied on then available transport means of horses, donkeys and oxen. The river also increased the pace of their transportation as it is faster that the beasts of burden used for those purposes. Transporting more goods and at a faster rate increased the volume of their trade and hence the capital available to them for expansion enabling it to rise as an empire. Another geographical position that enabled Mali to rise as an empire was its location on the lower banks of river Niger. The latter flooded periodically depositing fertile silt its banks. The silt was fertile facilitating the growth of crops. The river also provided water for the crops planted and hence the Mali Kingdom had adequate food supply. They also traded in food crops. With adequate food the empire could focus on other aspects of growth as they were spared of the severe bangs of hunger leading to starvation that affected the other kingdoms (Conrad, 2005: 93). Mali Kingdom unlike Ghana had actual gold mines in the Kingdom at Bumbuk and Bure. Hence increases its revenue from gold not just from transporting and facilitating its trade but also from the actual exploitation through selling of the gold that they mined. This helped them develop a stronger economy facilitating its rise. The trade routes for the Trans Saharan trade shifted eastwards and hence they fell in the Mali Kingdom. This leads to the rise of Mali as the empire, thus gaining a lot of revenue from the trade through the taxation of the traders. Revenue is important as it was used to support and fund the military and the royalty governing the empire enabling it to conquer more regions and hence rise. Political factors that led to the rise of the Mali Empire Several political factors led to the rise of Mali as an empire. The key among them includes the collapse of the Ghana Kingdom. When the Ghana kingdom collapsed, the individual kingdoms attained their independence and Mali was one of them. Together the Kingdoms were unassailable and strong but on their own they were weak and could easily be captured. When Mali gathered a sizeable army and the support of a few of its neighbors it became the strongest among the weak Kingdoms and was hence able to conquer them to submission thereby leading to its growth as an empire. If the Kingdom of Ghana had not collapsed then Mali would not have risen as an empire (Mann, 1996: 118). Another political factor that led to the rise of Mali as a Kingdom was the cruel leadership of Somanguru. The latter had ceased power upon the collapse of the Ghana Kingdom. He was cruel and ruled in a tyrannical manner killing people carelessly. When Sundiata a Mandinka prince was approached he accepted to rule the military and he did so successfully winning the battle of Kirina (McKissack.1994:77). That act united several kingdoms to the upper banks of the Niger River, which later became the Mali Empire. Hence that act led to the rise of the Mali. The governance of Mali Kingdom also led to its growth. This is so because under the Mansa (emperor) Sundiata came up with an efficient organizational structure that facilitated proper governance hence leading to Mali’s rise. Under this structure, the kings that had sworn allegiance to him and his descendants were appointed as commanders, they ruled their own kingdoms just as before, but this time they paid tribute to the empire. He also established a parliament like organization. This organization called the Gabra decided on the cases and the rules for the empire (McKissack, 1994: 91). He also initiated land reforms in that he divided land portions ensuring people owned land within the empire. He came up with documentation that regulated the interrelationships between people. This effectively reduced the conflicts in the region. Some other reforms initiated by Sundiata included proper and humane treatment of slaves and the prisoners in the kingdom. These led to the rise of the kingdom. Another emperor Mansa Musa also effected political changes that facilitated the rise of Mali Kingdom to reach its peak. Musa made political changes such as dividing the entire into administrative units that can be liked to provinces. He then appointed rulers for these provinces. The latter were further broken down to towns ruled by the equivalent of today’s mayors who were called â€Å"mochrif† (Conrad, 2005: 174) . Mansa Musa also led to the rise of the empire by expanding its territories far into the west. He did this by establishing a huge well trained army, which was used to expand the territory of the empire. It was also used for peace keeping in that whenever there was a rebellion in any of the small kingdoms, the army would be sent to quell it hence facilitating the rise of the Mali Empire. The army also facilitated trade by protecting the traders as they engaged in the trade and as they traded. Another political factor that led to the rise of the Mali Empire was the fact that the kingship was hereditary. Upon the death of one king, succession disputes were reduced by the fact that people knew his heir to the throne. This prevented power vacuums as people tried to choose a new leader. Smooth transition of power was a key factor in facilitating the prosperity of the nation. Except if a few cases where the heirs were overthrown. All the above factors led to the rise of the Mali Empire (McBr ewster, 2009: 29). Economic factors that led to the rise of the Mali Empire The Mali Kingdom like the other kingdoms in West Africa, though established by military conquest, thrived on trade. Therefore, economic factors played a big role in their rise and subsequent falls. In the Mali Kingdom the economic aspects that led to its rise include presence of such minerals as gold, copper and salt. Mali Empire has three gold mines within its borders. These facilitated the trade in gold. It improved the gold trade of the Mali Empire beyond that of Ghana Kingdom. The Empire also had other minerals such as bronze and copper. The latter was mined and traded in Takedda (Conrad, 2005: 245). Agriculture is another economic activity that enabled Mali to flourish. Through it Mali was able to trade in agricultural products like rice. The Niger River economically facilitated the growth of Mali, thus helping people transport goods along the trading routes that it passed through. Another economic factor leading to the growth of Mali kingdom was its location along the trade routes. Some of Mali’s major towns were located conveniently along the trade routes enabling them and hence the empire to grow. For instance, Taghaza town where people traded in salt. In Takedda people exchanged copper for gold. The government also had effective economic policies that led to the rise of the Mali Empire. The policies included taxation. The government taxed all the people trading in the Empire as well as ones who brought gold into the empire. This provided them with adequate funds to properly run the empire hence facilitating its growth (Mann, 1996: 105). The government intervened economically to stimulate the growth of the empire through the implementation of the monetary policy. This is evident that the empire or the place was the only custodian of gold. They received all mined gold and exchanged it for gold dust. This action prevented inflation and hence led to the rise of the Mali Empire, which had a good foreign policy, especially during the reign of Mansa Musa (McKissack, 1994: 87). This was because when he made the pilgrimage to mecca passing across Egypt and other countries he displayed his affluence and generosity attracting a lot of people. He made the rest of the world realize the existence of Mali and came to trade with them, thus resulting to high volumes of trade. He also personally brought scholars and doctors among other experts from around the world revolutionizing Timbuktu into a learning town. This attracted a lot of visitors, especially from North Africa and Asia, and hence improved the revenue of the country leadi ng to its rise. During Mansa Musa’s reign, Mali reached its peak; it was at its largest size about one point two million square kilometers. It had the largest trade volume and military strength. The Fall of Mali Empire Just like the Ghana Kingdom before it and The Songhai Empire after it, the Mali Empire fell, though it was gradual. Just like the rise, the fall of the Mali Empire is attributable to economic, geographical and political factors. The main political aspect leading to the collapse of the Mali Empire was succession. Upon the death of Mansa Musa the empire lacked a strong leader (McKissack, 1994: 74). His sons fought over the succession, since each of them desired to be the ruler. As a result, they fragmented the kingdom into smaller kingdoms. The latter also wanted their freedom as they desire to participate in the trading of gold and salt and to reap direct benefits. They thus revolted. Without an organized strong army to quell the rebellion, they succeeded in declaring and establishing their independence. Some of this Kingdoms such as the Songhai actually acquired enough military strength to conquer towns in the original Mali kingdom such as Goa and Timbuktu. Aside from political facto rs, economic and geographical ones also led to the fall of the Mali Empire (McBrewster, 2009: 109). New goldmines were discovered to the east and the trade shifted eastwards. As the economic base of the Mali Empire was gold, the shift hurt the economy leading to the eventual fall and final collapse of the Mali Kingdom. Conclusion The Mali Empire lasted several centuries. It was on an upward trajectory from the early eleventh century to the late 15th when its fall began. Factors such as good governance, favorable economic conditions and proper geographical location led to its rise. Its fall was caused by poor governance and a change in economic patterns. It had a structure similar to those of the other West African Kingdoms with an Emperor at the head and kings at the provincial level. At its peak it was the second largest empire in the whole world and was a model of civilization. Through the use of iron in the daily lives for purposes such as farming and fighting (spears) it achieved the success that had never been attained before. Its collapse however, was as a result of majorly poor governance. From this paper we can learn that authority is the key ingredient to a successful nation. Despite examples from Mali and Ghana subsequent Kingdoms in West Africa also fell as a result of poor governance and greed for power. Even in the 21st century African countries continue suffering from poor governance.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

B.F. Skinners Positive Reinforcement theory Research Paper

B.F. Skinners Positive Reinforcement theory - Research Paper Example This paper provides a detailed exploration of the theory of reinforcement while highlighting the facets of the theory as well as its organizational application. B.F. Skinner’s Positive Reinforcement Theory Background and Development of the Theory Many behavioral theories of motivation and learning have their main emphasis on the consequence of previous behavior on future behavior. In contrast, classical conditioning emphasizes on the responses automatically elicited by stimuli. The reinforcement theory argues that individuals will choose the response they exhibit to a given stimulus, and based on the outcome they will repeat the same choice in cases of similar stimulus in the future (Skinner, 1970). To further develop the theory’s suggestion, Thorndike (1911) developed what is now known as the Law of Effect which states that, with other factors remaining constant, positive responses to stimuli will be strengthened as opposed to the weakening of the responses to stimuli associated with discomfort (Michael, 2005). ... Positive reinforcement is as a result of the occurrence of a behavioral consequence of immense value that has a strengthening effect on the probability of the repeated occurrence of the behavior. This behavioral consequence is referred to as a reinforcer (Michael, 2005). A suitable example of this case is where a sales person trying a sales quota (behavior) exerts additional effort towards this goal, and the end result is a bonus reward (positive reinforcer). Administering the positive reinforcer makes it more likely that the salesperson will not stop exerting the required effort in the future (Montana and Charnov, 2008). Negative Reinforcement Negative reinforcement is as a result of undesirable behavioral consequences being withheld while at the same time strengthening the effect on the probability of a repeat of the behavior. Few people mistake negative reinforcement for punishment, but the two are different (Montana and Charnov, 2008). While negative reinforcement attempts to inc rease the desired behavior punishment strives to reduce the probability of occurrence of the behavior. Thus, Montana and Charnov (2008) believe that both negative and positive reinforcement have a trend of increasing the probability of the learning and repeated occurrence of a particular behavior. A suitable example in this case comes with the salesperson too. This time, the sales person exerts an effort with an aim of increasing the sales in their point of sale (behavior). Consequently, the decision that follows is not to reassign the successful salesperson to another sales point that is undesirable (negative reinforcer). Administration of this type of reinforcement ensures that the salesperson is able to exert more effort in the